1. WHAT YEAR PORTUGAL WAS FORMALLY CONSTITUTED?
HOW PORTUGAL WAS BORN?
By the eighth century, Muslims from North Africa conquered the Iberian Peninsula to the Visigoths. But they failed to conquer Asturias and the Basque Country (Spain).
That’s when the Visigoths nobles took refuge, and was there that they left to the Christian Reconquest.
Christians organized themselves into various kingdoms, was the first of Asturias, but then gave the Castilla y León and formed the Navarre and Aragon.
There have been setbacks and advances in the Reconquista and only when Muslims split is that Christians gained ground, and in that period then D. Afonso VI called for help from the French.
Then comes D. Henrique to fight. With their merits Knight, D. Henrique wins D. Alfonso VI, the Portucalense and marries his daughter D. Teresa.
When D. Henrique dies, D. Teresa joins the kingdom of Galicia and Portucalense nobles were not happy about it then pops a war for power between D. Afonso Henriques and D. Teresa. The outcome of this war was the Battle of S. Mamede with the victory of D. Afonso Henriques.
When D. Afonso Henriques won the battle of Ourique Moors proclaims himself king.
The Leão King, D. Alfonso VII, his cousin, did not like the situation and pops a conflict between the two.
In 1143 through the Treaty of Zamora D. Alfonso VII grants independence to portucalense County.
But D. Afonso Henriques wanted the pope to recognize her independence in 1179 and Bula Manifestis Probatum by Pope Alexander III granted independence from the Kingdom of Portugal.
Over several years D. Afonso Henriques and other kings conquered territories to the south and Alcanices treaty defines the boundaries east.
Thus was born Portugal.
2. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NAME OF THE CITY OF PORTO AND PORTUGAL
Originates from a pre-Roman settlement. In Roman times designated by Cale or Portus Cale, being the origin of the name of Portugal. In the year 868, Vímara Peres, founder of Portugalense county, had an important contribution to the conquest of territory from the Moors, thereby restoring the city of Portucale.
In 1111, D. Teresa, mother of the future first king of Portugal, granted to Bishop Hugo the “couto” of the Porto (landlord of the land). Weapons is part of the image of the city – Our Lady.
In fact that Porto is also known as “City of the Virgin,” epithets that must be attached to the “Old Mui Noble, Always Loyal and Invicta”, which were being allocated over the centuries and following its inhabitants, and which were ratified by decree of D. Maria II of Portugal.
It was within its walls that made the marriage of King João I to the English princess D. Filipa de Lencastre. The city prides itself on being the birthplace of Prince Henrique, the navigator.
3. WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE TREATY HELD IN PORTUGAL AND SPAIN THAT DIVIDED THE WORLD IN TWO PARTS
The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in the Castilian town of Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, a treaty was concluded between the Kingdom of Portugal and the newly formed Kingdom of Spain to divide the lands “discovered and undiscovered” by both crowns off Europe.
This treaty came after the Portuguese opposition to the pretensions of the Spanish Crown resulting from the voyage of Cristóvão Colombo, who months earlier had come to the New World, complaining to him officially Isabel the Catholic.
The treaty defined as the line of demarcation meridian 370 leagues west of the island of Santo Antão in the Cabo Verde archipelago. This line was located halfway between the islands (then Portuguese) and the Caribbean islands discovered by Columbus in the treaty referred to as “Cipango” and Antilia. The territories east of this meridian belong to Portugal and the territories to the west to Spain. The treaty was ratified by Spain on 2 July and Portugal to September 5, 1494.
A few decades later, following the so-called “question of the Moluccas,” the other side of the Earth would be divided, assuming as demarcation line in the east, the anti-meridian corresponding to the meridian of Tordesillas, by the Treaty of Saragoça, at 22 April 1529.
In the context of international relations, the signing took place at a moment of transition between the hegemony of the Papacy, universal power until then, and the affirmation of the unique power and secular of national monarchs – one of the many facets of the transition from the Middle Ages to the Modern Age.
For the negotiations and signing of the Treaty, D. Joao II of Portugal appointed as ambassador to his cousin of Castile (daughter of a Portuguese infanta) to D. Rui de Sousa. The originals of both treaties are preserved in the Archivo General de Indias in Spain and the National Archives of Torre do Tombo in Portugal.
4. THE NAVIGATOR WHO NAMED THE PACIFIC OCEAN
Fernão de Magalhães: 1480 – Estimated date of birth of Fernão de Magalhães in northern Portugal.
Born into a noble family, Magalhães was restless by nature: I wanted to see the world and explore it. In 1506 he traveled to the West Indies, participating in several military expeditions in the Moluccas, also known as the Spice Islands.
A service of the king of Spain, planned and commanded the naval expedition that made the first voyage of circumnavigation of the globe. It was the first to reach to the “Terra Do Fogo” (Land Of Fire) at the southern tip of the American continent, crossing the strait now known as Strait of Magalhães and across the Pacific Ocean, which he named. Fernão de Magalhães was killed in battle in Cebu, in the Philippines islands in the course of the expedition, later led by Juan Sebastián Elcano to return in 1522.